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No. 1 when it comes to Android development best practices is designing the application to be able to function properly on many types of devices and be ready to handle any occurrence. The focus when it comes to Android development best practices is performance. Without good performance on an application, a device will struggle with more CPU and GPU usage or high battery consumption which wrecks the overall user experience.

The following are the recommended Android development best practices:

  • Utilize recommended architecture of Android.
  • Maintain code quality.
  • Detect and fix any memory leaks.
  • Include unit tests preferably using JVM.
  • Include functional UI tests.
  • Perform tests on app functionality.
  • Write code focused on better performance.
  • Use Proguard to remove all unused code to reduce APK size.
  • Debug with tools such as Android Debug Database.
  • Make sure to use strings.xml to provide better support when new languages are implemented.
  • Make separate layouts for UI elements that will be used again.
  • Use mipmap folders for launcher icons.
  • To help reduce APK size use shapes and selectors, the more the better.
  • Use Constraint Layout for layout management.
  • Use one of the following HTTP libraries: Fast Android Networking, Volley or Retrofit.
  • When passing data in intents or bundles use Parcelable class instead of Serializable.
  • Perform file operations on a worker thread using AsyncTask/Loader.
  • Learn and understand Bitmaps and Context.
  • Avoid duplicate attributes in layout XMLs by using styles.
  • When required use Fragment.
  • Learn RxJava.

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Source: https://blog.mindorks.com/android-development-best-practices-83c94b027fd3